Selenium has unique biological functions, among which selenium-enriched yeast has significant advantages, and it has significant application prospects as a feed additive. Selenium feed is widely used in livestock, poultry, ruminants and aquaculture. growth and improve its immunity. Selenium is an essential trace element for humans and animals. It plays an important role in the growth, development and reproduction of animals. The occurrence of some animal diseases is also related to selenium. More than 70% of the areas in my country are deficient in selenium. In some areas, the content of selenium in pasture and feed is less than 0.05mg/kg. Animals cannot meet their normal needs with only a very small content in forage.
The biological function of selenium
Liver necrosis and other symptoms will occur after selenium deficiency in mice and pigs. Pancreatic fiber deformation will occur after selenium deficiency in chicken. The vitality of the animal has a serious impact on the reproductive ability of the animal. The selenium in the animal mainly exists in the form of protein binding, and is mainly involved in the antioxidant, growth and reproduction and immunity of the animal, and the effect is remarkable.
1. Antioxidant effect. Selenoproteins mainly exist in animals in the form of functional enzymes, which can effectively decompose oxides. When animals are deficient in selenium, the activity of glutathione peroxidase decreases, which will cause the accumulation of lipid free radicals, peroxides, and cell damage in the body, resulting in tissue damage. When selenium intake is too high, the activity of proteases is reduced, leading to collective oxidative damage in vivo by lipid peroxidation of biological membranes.
2. Improve the immunity of the body. Selenium can stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes and the expression of cytokine receptors, thereby promoting the production of antibodies and helping animals resist the invasion of various pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, selenium can also activate humoral immunity, thereby improving the ability of the body’s humoral immunity.
3. Improve the reproductive performance of animals. After animals are deficient in selenium, reproductive stimulation will cause endocrine disorders in animals. Selenium can promote the formation of animal sperm, enhance its activity, thereby improving its reproductive capacity. If the animal is deficient in selenium, the sperm motility of male animals will decrease, the conception rate of female animals will decrease, and the incidence of diseases such as retained placenta and metritis will be significantly increased.
4. Accelerate the growth and development of animals. Selenium in animals will affect the metabolism of fat, protein and sugar. By participating in the synthesis of coenzyme A and coenzyme Q, it promotes the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone in animals, accelerates the synthesis of animal protein, and promotes its growth.
Application of Selenium Feed Additive in Animal Breeding
2. Application of selenium feed additive in aquaculture
1. Application of selenium in ruminant farming. The growth and development of ruminants requires selenium, but the addition amount should also be controlled to prevent selenium poisoning, mainly lameness, hoof loss, weakness and hair loss. Under normal circumstances, the daily supply of beef cattle cannot exceed 1 mg/kg, and the daily supply of mutton sheep cannot exceed 0.23 mg/kg. Lambs are more sensitive to selenium. Some studies have found that their dietary selenium content exceeds 10mg/kg can cause chronic poisoning, while sheep have a higher tolerance to selenium. When their dietary selenium content is 20-38mg/kg, they will not produce other reactions. When the content of selenium in ruminant feed is lower than 0.02mg/kg, lambs and calves will have a series of typical symptoms, mainly myocardial necrosis, muscular dystrophy and bone necrosis, and some will have diarrhea, growth retardation, weakness and other symptoms. Frailty syndromes such as difficulty getting up, and in severe cases, death due to heart failure. The utilization rate of organic selenium in ruminants is significantly higher than that of inorganic selenium. Generally, the utilization rate of different selenium sources in dairy cows is as follows: sodium elongation 100%, selenomethionine 245%, cobalt selenate 105%, and selenium yeast 290%.
2. Application of selenium in pig breeding. In order to promote the rapid growth of meat pigs, 0.3-0.5 mg/kg of selenium is added to most finishing pig feeds. The addition of organic selenium can effectively improve the daily weight gain of pigs and improve the utilization rate of feed. Selenium can improve the quality of pork, making the redness of pig muscles significantly improved. Selenium plays an important role in porcine testosterone biosynthesis and sperm formation. Generally, 0.15-0.3mg/kg of selenium is added to pig feed to improve the level of reproductive hormones in pigs. Studies have shown that selenium deficiency in sows will cause certain endocrine disorders. With the variation of the structure of reproductive organs, it will cause damage to reproductive cells. Adding selenium to the feed can effectively prevent sows from abortion and embryo mortality, and improve their reproductive organs. Reproductive ability and reduce infertility rate of sows. According to regulations, 0.1 mg/kg of selenium is generally added to pig compound feed and total mixed feed, and the maximum limit is 0.5 mg/kg.
3. Application of selenium in poultry farming. The use of selenium in poultry farming can effectively prevent disease, promote animal growth and increase its egg production rate. As an essential trace element for poultry, selenium promotes the reproduction and growth of poultry and improves its immunity. Studies have shown that the combined use of vitamin E and selenium can prevent the softening of the brain in chicks and the degeneration of the gizzard in turkeys, and the effect is remarkable. Exogenous yeast selenium 0.3 mg/kg, or selenium yeast is often used in breeding, which can promote the early development of immune organs and improve the thymus, spleen and bursa index of laying chicks, making them play an important role. Generally, adding 0.9 mg/kg methionine selenium to the diet of laying hens can increase the average egg weight; adding 0.5 mg/kg organic selenium can increase the weight and Hastelloy unit value of eggs, but the egg shape index, egg shell strength and There was no significant difference in thickness, etc. The increase of selenium source and selenium level in the feed will significantly increase the selenium content of eggs. After adding 0.4mg/kg of sodium selenite and nano-selenium to the poultry diet, the development and growth of young prostitutes are improved, and their daily weight gain is significantly increased. , At the same time, the mortality rate of young prostitutes decreased significantly. Although the effect of sodium selenite is not obvious, excessive selenium can cause chicken poisoning. Adding 0.4% traditional Chinese medicine selenium-enriched yeast to the chicken’s diet can effectively improve muscle quality. The diameter of muscle fibers is significantly reduced, and the moisture content of muscles decreased, the redness, yellowness, muscle fiber density, crude fat content, crude protein content of muscle increased significantly.
In short, selenium feed additives play an important role in animal breeding. It is very important for farmers to enhance their understanding of selenium elements, predict the situation of selenium deficiency in breeding, increase animal welfare, ensure healthy animal breeding, and improve economic benefits. . Brand selenium-enriched yeast on the market is an ideal selenium preparation that can be widely used in animal feeding.